Transnational Terrorism, Security, and the Rule of Law (TTSRL EU Research Project)

Notions of security
This paper discusses definitions of security and gives a historical overview of this concept. In addition, several security related theories are discussed (such as realism, liberalism, and constructivism), and levels of analysis (system, state, individual levels). Finally, the authors take a look at how transnational terrorism fits into this theoretical framework.

The evolving threat of terrorism in policy and media
In this report we have analyzed the policy discourse on security within the European Union, both at the national level and at the EU level. Also, we have looked at the media discourse on terrorism in European countries as well as in a number of non-European countries, based on the assumption that the media discourse is an important element in policy decisions as well as an indicator of public perceptions of the issue.

Transnational terrorism: theoretical approaches and policy discourse
Our aim in this report was to determine whether the discourse on terrorism found in different European countries reflects new concepts and aspects of security (referring primarily to the matter of terrorism).
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Defining terrorism
Without understanding the meaning of the term terrorism, it is hardly possible to analyze the consequences of the phenomenon. Unfortunately, different people and organizations use varying definitions. In this paper, we have investigated the manner in which terrorism has been conceptualized and classified in academic literature. In addition, we have analyzed how terrorism is defined in European law as well as in the codes of law of selected Member States.

Defining terrorism within the EU
This paper aims to provide an overview of the development and evolution of a definition for terrorism within the European Union.

Terrorism and the media
The media play an important role in terrorist strategy. This paper discusses the relationship between terrorism and the mass media. It will describe this relationship, analyze the consequences, and discuss whether something can or should be done to break this link.

The negative economic impact of terrorism
The aim of this study is to give an insight in the relation between economic globalization and transnational terrorism and their implications for those counterterrorism policies designed to minimize the economic consequences of terrorist attacks in the EU.

Theoretical treatise on counterterrorism approaches
This report aims to present a study of the theoretical dimension of counterterrorism by focusing on the extended scope of the concept, in order to be able to review the EU’s strategic efforts to combat terrorism. Elements from a number of academic fields are used in an effort to present a broad view of theories and notions that have continuously contributed to counterterrorism research.
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Mapping counterterrorism
This report describes our framework devised to help us identify different categories of counterterrorism policies of states. A comparison of the counterterrorism efforts of several EU Member States is the result.

Conflict and coherence
This report describes and analyzes counterterrorism policies of the European Union, and takes an in-depth look at whether or not they are coherent with other important EU policies.

Causal factors of radicalization
This paper aims to provide insight into the causal factors of radicalization as well as the complex interactions that lead to this phenomenon. In addition, it looks at the question which social groups are most susceptible to radicalization.

EU counterradicalization strategy
This paper evaluates the EU policies concerning the causes of radicalization. After a general analysis two specific case studies (The United Kingdom and Amsterdam) are used to illuminate the policies.

Euroterrorism
This paper deals with two strands in European terrorism, and the way organizations cooperate within and between those strands.

Exploring root and trigger causes of terrorism
This study was written as a contextual paper for Workpackage 3, Deliverable 5. It investigates and analyzes the root and trigger causes for terrorism. After thorough assessment it illustrates five of the most commonly cited characteristics thought to contribute to root causes and to trigger causes.

Hizb ut Tahrir al Islami
This report written for Workpackage 3, Deliverable 5, deals with the organization Hizb ut Tahrir al Islami. To many countries in and outside of Europe, Hizb ut Tahrir presents a particularly difficult challenge since it holds radical Islamist views, but openly only advocates peaceful change.

The “Hofstadgroep”
This report written for Workpackage 3, Deliverable 5, analyzes the small Dutch terrorist network the “Hofstadgroep”. It presents an examination of the network and its convicted members, particularly focusing on Mohammed Bouyeri, convicted murderer of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh. Analyzing the root causes and triggering events that incited Bouyeri’s actions, we aimed to shed additional light on the counterterrorism policies in the Netherlands and abroad.

Isolating terrorism
This paper discusses some of the issues related to the problematic task of defining terrorism, in the context of Workpackage 3, Deliverables 4 and 5. A closer look is taken at the similarities and dissimilarities between terrorism and organized crime, as well as those between terrorism and other forms of political violence.

Right-wing terrorism
This report written for Workpackage 3, Deliverable 5, deals with extreme right-wing groups that carry out terrorism. Although after 9/11 most of the attention shifted from right wing to Islamist or religious terrorism, right-wing terrorism is gaining in importance again. This paper discusses this phenomenon.

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