The JASON report began by noting that “A science of cyber security has to deal with a combination of peculiar features that are shared by no other area of study.”
“First, the background on which events occur is almost completely created by humans and is digital. That is, people built all the pieces. One might have thought that computers, their software, and networks were therefore completely understandable. The truth is that the cyber-universe is complex well beyond anyone’s understanding and exhibits behavior that no one predicted, and sometimes can’t even be explained well [after the fact],” the report said.
“Second, cyber security has good guys and bad guys. It is a field that has developed because people have discovered how to do things that other people disapprove of, and that break what is thought to be an agreed-upon social contract in the material world. That is, in cyber security there are adversaries, and the adversaries are purposeful and intelligent.”